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Copper is a non-ferrous base metal and its average concentration in the earth’s crust is about 50 ppm (parts per million). The average minimum exploitable grade for a copper deposit is 0.4% which equates to a concentration factor of around 80 based on average crustal abundance.

Copper is also present in soils and occurs naturally in all plants and animals and is a nutrient found in cells throughout the body. It is an essential element for all known living organisms. It is one of the transition metals in the periodic table which means it can form compounds, such as chalcopyrite the main copper ore (CuFeS2), and copper ions (Cu+ or Cu2+) in solution.

Copper metal are estimated at about 1.6 billion tonnes, not including about an additional 700 million tonnes in deep-sea nodules. Current world reserves are estimated at 467 000 tonnes, nearly one third of which are found in Chile.

Physical properties.
Copper is a metallic chemical element with the Atomic number 29, its chemical symbol is Cu and its Atomic weight 63.546. Copper metal has a characteristic reddish brown colour, with a metallic lustre on fresh surfaces. However, it quickly oxidises in air, a feature of all base-metals. Copper is relatively soft (2.5–3.0 on Moh’s scale of hardness), it has a density of about 293 K 8960 kg/m-3, Melting point of 1083ºC, Boiling point of 2567ºC. Its Specific heat capacity is at 293 K 386 J/kg while its electrical conductivity 100%, and electrical conductivity is at 298 K 5.98x107 Ohm-1m-1 and lastly Electrical resistivity 1.673 x 10-8Ohm m.

Copper combines with a number of elements and more than 150 copper minerals have been identified, although only a small number of these are of economic importance. Copper minerals can be divided into three groups. Primary or hypogene minerals related to hy-drothermal processes include bornite, chalcopyrite and enargite. A second group is the copper oxides, typically formed from weathering of copper sulphides that include cuprite, malachite, chrysocolla and covellite. The third group is secondary sulphides, such as chalcocite and covellite, formed from copper leached from near-surface sulphides. Disseminated copper sulphide deposits dominate global copper production. Estimates suggest at least 90% of copper is derived from sulphide deposits. Of the sulphide minerals, chalcopyrite is by far the most important accounting for approximately half of all copper production.

There are copper mines throughout the world. Copper deposits are found worldwide in a variety of geological environments. Hydrothermal deposits are most significant on a global scale, although magmatic3 and supergene4 deposits are locally important. Numerous other types of mineral deposits contain copper in variable amounts, however, these are of limited economic importance.


Copper has a wide range of applications because of its many useful properties. It is malleable, durable, strong and heat resistant. It is also one of the most efficient conductors of electricity and heat.

  • Copper is used to manufacture copper wire, copper products and copper alloy products. Wire and cable copper is used for or formed into general industrial cable, utility power cable, telecommunications cable, insulated wire and winding wire for electrical motors. Wire and copper cable is also used in heating and air conditioning systems, plumbing, roofing and brass fittings.
  • For electrical and electronic devices such as televisions, radios, lighting, computers and mobile phones, copper wiring is used for electrical leads, adapters, transformers and motors. Copper compounds and chemicals are used to protect plants and crops and to preserve wood. Copper tubing for plumbing, heating systems, air conditioners and refrigerators accounts for a significant use of copper. Copper may also be used in alloy products which include copper sheet and strips and brass fixtures used for building fixtures and fittings.

The price of Nickel is primarily determined by changes in supply and demand, which are in turn affected and determined by global economic conditions. Nickel consumption by Asian countries has increased demand for the metal and, in the last few years, has led to higher prices.

  • Copper and its price
  • One Month, One year, 5years Forecast
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Company Number: 84840

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